Meta

class sklego.meta.ConfusionBalancer(estimator, alpha: float = 0.5, cfm_smooth=0)[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator, sklearn.base.ClassifierMixin, sklearn.base.MetaEstimatorMixin

The ConfusionBalancer attempts to give it’s child estimator a more balanced output by learning from the confusion matrix during training. The idea is that the confusion matrix calculates P(C_i | M_i) where C_i is the actual class and M_i is the class that the underlying model gives. We use these probabilities to attempt a more balanced prediction by averaging the correction from the confusion matrix with the original probabilities.

\[p( ext{class_j}) = lpha p( ext{model}_j) + (1-lpha) p( ext{class_j} | ext{model}_j) p( ext{model}_j)\]
Parameters:
  • model – a scikit learn compatible classification model that has predict_proba
  • alpha – a hyperparameter between 0 and 1, determines how much to apply smoothing
  • cfm_smooth – a smoothing parameter for the confusion matrices to ensure zeros don’t exist
fit(X, y)[source]

Fit the data.

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict new data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples,) the predicted data
predict_proba(X)[source]

Predict new data, with probabilities

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples, n_classes) the predicted data
class sklego.meta.DecayEstimator(model, decay: float = 0.999, decay_func='exponential')[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator

Morphs an estimator suchs that the training weights can be adapted to ensure that points that are far away have less weight. Note that it is up to the user to sort the dataset appropriately. This meta estimator will only work for estimators that have a “sample_weights” argument in their .fit() method.

The DecayEstimator will use exponential decay to weight the parameters.

w_{t-1} = decay * w_{t}

fit(X, y)[source]

Fit the data after adapting the same weight.

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict new data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples,) the predicted data
score(X, y)[source]
class sklego.meta.EstimatorTransformer(estimator, predict_func='predict')[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.TransformerMixin, sklearn.base.MetaEstimatorMixin, sklearn.base.BaseEstimator

Allows using an estimator such as a model as a transformer in an earlier step of a pipeline

Parameters:
  • estimator – An instance of the estimator that should be used for the transformation
  • predict_func – The function called on the estimator when transforming e.g. (predict, predict_proba)
fit(X, y)[source]

Fits the estimator

transform(X)[source]

Applies the predict_func on the fitted estimator.

Returns an array of shape (X.shape[0], ).

sklego.meta.GroupedEstimator(*args, **kwargs)[source]
class sklego.meta.GroupedPredictor(estimator, groups, shrinkage=None, use_global_model=True, **shrinkage_kwargs)[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator

Construct an estimator per data group. Splits data by values of a single column and fits one estimator per such column.

Parameters:
  • estimator – the model/pipeline to be applied per group
  • groups – the column(s) of the matrix/dataframe to select as a grouping parameter set
  • shrinkage

    How to perform shrinkage. None: No shrinkage (default) {“constant”, “min_n_obs”, “relative”} or a callable * constant: shrunk prediction for a level is weighted average of its prediction and its

    parents prediction
    • min_n_obs: shrunk prediction is the prediction for the smallest group with at least
      n observations in it
    • relative: each group-level is weight according to its size
    • function: a function that takes a list of group lengths and returns an array of the
      same size with the weights for each group
  • use_global_model – With shrinkage: whether to have a model over the entire input as first group Without shrinkage: whether or not to fall back to a general model in case the group parameter is not found during .predict()
  • **shrinkage_kwargs

    keyword arguments to the shrinkage function

fit(X, y=None)[source]

Fit the model using X, y as training data. Will also learn the groups that exist within the dataset.

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict on new data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples,) the predicted data
class sklego.meta.GroupedTransformer(transformer, groups, use_global_model=True)[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator, sklearn.base.TransformerMixin

Construct a transformer per data group. Splits data by groups from single or multiple columns and transforms remaining columns using the transformers corresponding to the groups.

Parameters:
  • transformer – the transformer to be applied per group
  • groups – the column(s) of the matrix/dataframe to select as a grouping parameter set. If None, the transformer will be applied to the entire input without grouping
  • use_global_model – Whether or not to fall back to a general transformation in case a group is not found during .transform()
fit(X, y=None)[source]

Fit the transformers to the groups in X

Parameters:
  • X – Array-like with at least two columns, of which at least one corresponds to groups defined in init, and the remaining columns represent the values to transform.
  • y – (Optional) target variable
transform(X)[source]

Fit the transformers to the groups in X

Parameters:X – Array-like with columns corresponding to the ones in .fit()
class sklego.meta.OutlierRemover(outlier_detector, refit=True)[source]

Bases: sklego.common.TrainOnlyTransformerMixin, sklearn.base.BaseEstimator

Removes outliers (train-time only) using the supplied removal model.

Parameters:
  • outlier_detector – must implement fit and predict methods
  • refit – If True, fits the estimator during pipeline.fit().
fit(X, y=None)[source]

Calculates the hash of X_train

transform_train(X)[source]
class sklego.meta.SubjectiveClassifier(estimator, prior, evidence='both')[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator, sklearn.base.ClassifierMixin, sklearn.base.MetaEstimatorMixin

Corrects predictions of the inner classifier by taking into account a (subjective) prior distribution of the classes.

This can be useful when there is a difference in class distribution between the training data set and the real world. Using the confusion matrix of the inner classifier and the prior, the posterior probability for a class, given the prediction of the inner classifier, can be computed. The background for this posterior estimation is given in this article <https://lucdemortier.github.io/articles/16/PerformanceMetrics>_.

Based on the evidence attribute, this meta estimator’s predictions are based on simple weighing of the inner estimator’s predict_proba() results, the posterior probabilities based on the confusion matrix, or a combination of the two approaches.

Parameters:
  • estimator – An sklearn-compatible classifier estimator
  • prior – A dict of class->frequency representing the prior (a.k.a. subjective real-world) class

distribution. The class frequencies should sum to 1. :param evidence: A string indicating which evidence should be used to correct the inner estimator’s predictions. Should be one of ‘predict_proba’, ‘confusion_matrix’, or ‘both’ (default). If predict_proba, the inner estimator’s predict_proba() results are multiplied by the prior distribution. In case of confusion_matrix, the inner estimator’s discrete predictions are converted to posterior probabilities using the prior and the inner estimator’s confusion matrix (obtained from the train data used in fit()). In case of both (default), the the inner estimator’s predict_proba() results are multiplied by the posterior probabilities.

classes_
fit(X, y)[source]

Fits the inner estimator based on the data.

Raises a ValueError if the y vector contains classes that are not specified in the prior, or if the prior is not a valid probability distribution (i.e. does not sum to 1).

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Returns predicted class, based on the provided data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples, n_classes) the predicted data
predict_proba(X)[source]

Returns probability distribution of the class, based on the provided data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples, n_classes) the predicted data
class sklego.meta.Thresholder(model, threshold: float)[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator, sklearn.base.ClassifierMixin

Takes a two class estimator and moves the threshold. This way you might design the algorithm to only accept a certain class if the probability for it is larger than, say, 90% instead of 50%.

fit(X, y)[source]

Fit the data.

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict new data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples,) the predicted data
predict_proba(X)[source]
score(X, y)[source]

Return the mean accuracy on the given test data and labels.

In multi-label classification, this is the subset accuracy which is a harsh metric since you require for each sample that each label set be correctly predicted.

X : array-like of shape (n_samples, n_features)
Test samples.
y : array-like of shape (n_samples,) or (n_samples, n_outputs)
True labels for X.
sample_weight : array-like of shape (n_samples,), default=None
Sample weights.
score : float
Mean accuracy of self.predict(X) wrt. y.
class sklego.meta.OutlierClassifier(model)[source]

Bases: sklearn.base.BaseEstimator, sklearn.base.ClassifierMixin

Morphs an estimator that performs outlier detection into a classifier. When an outlier is detected it will output 1 and 0 otherwise. This way you can use familiar metrics again and this allows you to consider outlier models as a fraud detector.

fit(X, y)[source]

Fit the data after adapting the same weight.

Parameters:
  • X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
  • y – array-like, shape=(n_samples,) training data.
Returns:

Returns an instance of self.

predict(X)[source]

Predict new data.

Parameters:X – array-like, shape=(n_columns, n_samples,) training data.
Returns:array, shape=(n_samples,) the predicted data